Copy of Denture
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A denture is a removable dental appliance to replace missing teeth and the surrounding tissue. They are made to closely resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. A denture helps you to properly chew food and can improve speech and prevent a sagging face by providing support for the cheeks and lips.

There are two types of dentures – complete and partial dentures. Complete dentures are used when all of the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain. A partial denture not only fills in the spaces created by missing teeth, it prevents other teeth from shifting.

Removable Partial denture(RPD) for single tooth or several missing teeth

Alternative materials : Acrylic base

  • Affectionately known in dentistry as a "flipper"
  • The least expensive of all the removable partial dentures.
  • The pink plastic of the denture base is brittle acrylic, the same material used to make standard full dentures
  • For several teeth missing, wrought wire clasps might be added and cured into the structure of the denture base for better retention.
  • These are frequently fabricated even if the remaining teeth have existing decay or periodontal disease and their prognosis is doubtful.
  • If later in the course of treatment some of the existing natural teeth are extracted for any reason, new false teeth can be added quickly to the partial, maintaining the patient's appearance. - Inspite of the fact that they are considered a temporary solution, many people keep this type of appliance for many, many years, because as long as they are properly maintained, they look outwardly as good as the more expensive permanent appliances.
  • One of the neatest tricks that a flipper can do is to act as an "immediate partial denture". This means that the appliance can be made before the teeth are removed, and inserted immediately after the extraction of the offending teeth.


Cast metal framework RPDe

  • The framework is cast to fit the teeth. Since they sit on the teeth, as well as being attached to them, they are extremely stable and retentive.
  • The teeth have been altered slightly beforehand in order that the partial denture can rest upon them without interfering with the way the patient bites the teeth together.
  • The metal framework does not contact the gums. Thus, as the gums resorb, this type of partial does not sink with them and rarely requires relines.
  • Modern frameworks are cast from an extremely strong alloy called chrome cobalt which can be cast very thin and are much less likely to break than the all plastic variety. They are also much less noticeable to the tongue.

 Flexible framework RPD

  • Denture base is made from Nylon or a vinyl composite
  • It replaces the metal, and the pink acrylic denture material used to build the framework for standard removable partial dentures.
  • It is nearly unbreakable, is colored pink like the gums, can be built quite thin, and can form not only the denture base, but the clasps as well.
  • Since the clasps are built to curl around the necks of the teeth, they are practically indistinguishable from the gums that normally surround the teeth.
  • This type of partial denture is extremely stable and retentive, and the elasticity of the flexible plastic clasps keeps them that way indefinitely.  


Complete denture for all missing teeth

 What Does Getting Dentures Involve?

The process of getting dentures requires several appointments, usually 1-2 weeks. Highly accurate impressions (molds) and measurements are taken and used to create your custom denture. Several "try-in" appointments may be necessary to ensure proper shape color and fit. At the final appointment, your dentist will precisely adjust and deliver the completed denture, ensuring a natural and comfortable fit.

 1st Appointment

  • Oral examination
  • X-Rays
  • Molding of the upper and lower edentulous (toothless) ridges (gums)
  • Other parameters are determined such as the shade, size and shape of the teeth that will be placed on the new dentures

2nd Appointment

Decide how "long" to make the teeth - Determine the plane of the tooth setup (when you smile, the teeth should be parallel to a line between the pupils of your eyes) - Correct relationship of the upper and lower teeth so that when you bite together, the upper and lower teeth line up correctly using a lose fitting denture base and a rim of wax to approximate the position of the teeth.

 3rd Appointment

Wax try-in, the lab returns the loosely fitting tray from the second appointment with the actual final plastic teeth lined up along the outer edge of the wax rim 

The wax try-in looks just like a real denture, except that the base fits loosely on the gums, and the teeth are embedded in wax instead of plastic. This gives us the opportunity to see how the denture looks and works before we are committed to the setup.

4th Appointment : Insertion date

It is normal to experience increased saliva flow, some soreness and possible speech and chewing difficulty, however, this will subside as your muscles and tissues get used to the new dentures.

Dentures can be attached to dental implants to allow for a more secure fit of the appliance. Regular dentist examinations are still important for the denture wearer so that the oral tissues can be checked for disease or change. You will be given care instructions for your new dentures. Proper cleaning of your new dental appliance, good oral hygiene and regular dental visits will extend the life of your new dentures.  

Copy of Dental Bridge
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Dental bridge is a dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth or dental implants. 

Type of Bridge

  • Traditional bridges involve creating a crown for the tooth or implant on either side of the missing tooth, with a pontic in between. Traditional bridges are the most common type of bridge and are made of either porcelain fused to metal or ceramics.
  • Cantilever bridges are used when there are adjacent teeth on only one side of the missing tooth or teeth.
  • Maryland bonded bridges (also called a resin-bonded bridge or a Maryland bridge) are made of plastic teeth and gums supported by a metal framework. Metal wings on each side of the bridge are bonded to your existing teeth.

Material Used For The Bridges

  • Full metal/gold 
  • Porcelain fused to metal/gold 
  • All ceramic

Duration of treatment : 3 appointments



1st Appointment

  • Numb your teeth
  • Shape adjacent teeth to the space for a bridge




  • Impression of your teeth




  • Color selection for the bridge



  • Working time in the lab for a permanent bridge



2nd Appointment

  • Fitting of a permanent bridge

3rd Appointment 

  • Re-checking

 * Material for bridges : Same as crowns

Copy of Dental Crown
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is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are often needed when a large cavity threatens the ongoing health of a tooth. They are typically bonded to the tooth using a dental cement. Crowns can be made from many materials, which are usually fabricated using indirect methods. Crowns are often used to improve the strength or appearance of teeth.

Duration of treatment : 3 appointments

1st Appointment

  • Numb your teeth - shape adjacent teeth to the space for a bridge

  • Impression of your tooth

  • Color selection for the bridge - temporary crown
  • Working time in the lab for a permanent bridge

 2nd Appointment

  • Fitting of a permanent crown

3rd Appointment

  • Re-checkin

Material For Crowns 

Full metal

Porcelain with metal substructure

All ceramic (Metal free)

  • Procera
  • Cercon
  • Empress
  • IPS Emax
  • Lava

Strong, Attractive and Compatible : You expect the best

There are not many materials, such as natural diamond, which combine exceptional beauty and strength. In dentistry, there has been continuous research and development to find materials suitable for dental prosthesis that are aesthetically acceptable, of sufficient strength and which are perfectly tolerated by the human body. For many years ceramic materials combined with metals have been used in dental restorations, ceramic to achieve the desired aesthetics, metal for strength.

A high-tech ceramic, Zirconium Oxide, is now available and has already been proven in many extreme situations such as heat shields in the Space Shuttle, brake disks for sports cars and the spherical heads of artificial hip joints. This high-tech ceramic has the potential to give prosthetic care a whole new image, because thanks to Cercon smart ceramics it can now be used in dentistry.

With the Cercon system, all-ceramic crowns and bridges of up to four units can be made in the incisal and molar regions. In individual cases, depending on the gap of the bridged teeth, even bridges of up to six units are possible. Additional dental applications are already in the testing phase and are just awaiting test results.

Sheer High-Tech Brilliance For The Best Results

Until now, zirconium oxide could only be processed at great expense because of its exceptional hardness and was thus prohibitive for use as a dental prosthesis.

As the result of progress of a research project carried out by the renowned Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, is it now possible to use this material economically in dental technology.

A wax form or model of your "new teeth" is created in the dental laboratory, to the precise specifications provided by your dentist. This wax form serves as the pattern from which a computer-aided milling unit creates your crown or bridge from a solid zirconium oxide blank.

A ceramic veneer in your individual tooth colours is then applied to the milled zirconium oxide unit to achieve the desired characteristics and natural looking appearance. The Cercon system operates safely and flawlessly, with everything coming from one source – DeguDent.

If you would like to learn more about the fascinating steps involved in creating a dental restoration from Cercon smart ceramics, please contact your dentist or his dental technical laboratory.

Zirconium oxide blank

Bonding porcelain

Scanning and milling uni

Set Value On True Quality

In addition to a better appearance there are other features that determine the result and longevity of your investment that serve as a particular standard for quality. With Cercon smart ceramics, these quality standards are not just met but re-established. A Cercon dental restoration makes no compromises in aesthetics, compatibility, durability and function.

All The Facts On Cercon Smart Ceramics For You At A Glance

Improved Aesthetics

  • Due to the white zirconium oxide milled substructure
  • Thanks to the specially developed veneering porcelain Cercon®ceram S
  • Optimal shade match to the existing natural teeth
  • Can be contoured to blend with the natural dentition


  • Verified by the medical application of zirconium oxide for about 20 years
  • No allergic reactions reported in the published literature
  • No interaction with other dental materials
  • Good insulating behavior of the ceramic against cold/warm influences
  • Thanks to a smooth ceramic surface that supports good oral hygiene


  • Thanks to the exceptional strength of zirconium oxide
  • High stability requiring minimum framework dimensions

Natural Colour and Shape

As the term "all-ceramic" already suggests, Cercon smart ceramics requires no metal framework. This offers a great advantage for your restoration's aesthetics, because the milled zirconium oxide substructure is white in colour. The milled unit is further modelled using Cercon ceram® S veneering porcelain to blend with the existing adjacent teeth in your mouth in both shape and colour, giving the restoration its very natural appearance.

With the additional advantage of having maximum stability thanks to its strength in thin sections, Cercon restorations can be well integrated to follow the natural contours of your mouth. Together with your natural teeth, a harmonious overall appearance can be achieved that makes as good an impression as your own teeth.

IPS e.max Lithium Disilicate

Lithium disilicate (LS2) glass-ceramic is ideally suitable for the fabrication of monolithic single-tooth restorations. This innovative ceramic provides highly esthetic results and, compared to other glass-ceramics, demonstrates a strength that is 2.5 to 3 times higher. Supported with zirconium oxide, it may also be used for bridges in the posterior area.

The material is used in the dental laboratory in conjunction with either the press or the CAD/CAM technology. Given the high strength of 360-400 MPa, the restorations offer flexible cementation options. Depending on the patient situation, the restorations may be veneered in a highly esthetic manner or, if fabricated as monolithic restorations, stained.

Even if the preparations demonstrate a dark shade (e.g. as a result of discolouration or titanium abutments), all-ceramic restorations may be fabricated. Inform your laboratory about the die shade and the dental technicians then selects the IPS e.max lithium disilicate material in the required opacity in order to redesign the true-to-nature esthetic appearance.


  • Thin veneers (0.3 mm)
  • Minimally invasive inlays and onlays
  • Partial crowns and crowns
  • Implant superstructures
  • 3-unit anterior/premolar bridges (only IPS e.max Press)
  • 3-unit bridges (zirconium-oxide supported only IPS e.max CAD)

The highlights

  • True-to-nature shade behaviour for highly esthetic solutions
  • Durable restorations due to the high strength
  • Minimally invasive preparation for treatment that is gentle to the tooth structure
  • Versatile use and comprehensive range of indications
  • Lifelike esthetics, irrespective of the shade of the preparation
  • Adhesive, self-adhesive or conventional cementation depending on the indication

Lithium disilicate – esthetic and versatile

The lithium disilicate ceramic (LS2) of the IPS e.max system shows that esthetics and strength can be successfully combined. This is particularly true in single-tooth restorations, because this innovative ceramic produces esthetic results, while it is 2 ½ to 3 times stronger than other glass-ceramics.

Lithium disilicate has many uses. Its indication spectrum ranges from thin veneers (0.3 mm) and minimally invasive inlays and onlays to partial crowns, full crowns and threeunit anterior bridges. Of course, implant superstructures can also be produced with this material.

Because of its high strength of 360 - 400 MPa, restorations fabricated with this material can be cemented with different methods.

Due to their natural-looking colour and optimal light transmission, lithium disilicate restorations offer highly esthetic solutions. Depending on the needs of the patient, the restorations can be veneered with a highly esthetic material or they can be fabricated to full contour and then economically characterized.

Even if the tooth's core is dark in colour (eg discoloured stump or titanium abutments), you no longer have to resort to zirconium oxide or metal-ceramic solutions. You can inform the dental laboratory about the colour that needs to be masked and the dental technician in charge will choose the IPS e.max lithium disilicate material with the required opacity to restore the natural esthetic appearance of the tooth.

The highlights

  • Highly esthetic solutions
  • Long-lasting restorations due their high strength
  • Versatile use and very wide range of indications
  • Lifelike esthetic results − irrespective of the colour of the prepared tooth
  • Adhesive, self-adhesive and conventional cementation

IPS e.max Press Lithium disilicate: versatile and esthetic

"Pressed" all-ceramics have been successfully used for 20 years and are synonymous with esthetic, accurately fitting biocompatible restorations.

Experience the versatility of IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LS2). It offers the fit, form and function expected from pressed ceramics. In addition, it exhibits a unique strength of 400 MPa and outstanding esthetics.

The material is available in four levels of translucency. Therefore, naturallooking esthetic results can be achieved irrespective of the appearance of the prepared tooth. As a result, you can use the esthetic all-ceramic IPS e.max Press even if your patients have devitalized teeth or cast core build-ups. Communicate the shade of the prepared tooth to your lab, the technician will then select the suitable IPS e.max material offering the required opacity in order to recreate the natural esthetic appearance.

IPS e.max Press can be used to fabricate restorations which preserve as much of the natural tooth structure as possible, such as inlays, onlays, Table Tops ("occlusal veneers") and Thin Veneers. The range of indications of course also includes crowns, bridges for the anterior and premolar region as well as implant superstructures.

Select the most suitable solution for the individual patient together with your lab technician. You can choose between low-cost fully anatomical restorations, which offer a costeffective and pleasing alternative to full cast crowns, and more expensive restorations which are cut back and layered to meet the most exacting esthetic patient requirements.

IPS e.max Press

IPS e.max Press is an innovative lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LS2) ingot for the press technology.

The innovative IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LS2) provides accuracy of fit, function and esthetics while simultaneously featuring a strength of 400 MPa. The ingots are available in four levels of translucency, two sizes and now also as Impulse ingots. The result is a lifelike esthetic appearance irrespective of the shade of the preparation.

HT ingots (High Translucency)

The HT ingots are available in 16 A-D and 4 Bleach BL shades. Given their high translucency, they are ideal for the fabrication of smaller restorations e.g. inlays and onlays). They can efficiently be individualized using the staining technique. 

LT ingots (Low Translucency)

The LT ingots are available in 16 A-D and 4 Bleach BL shades. Given their low translucency, they are ideal for the fabrication of larger restorations(e.g. posterior crowns). They impress users with their lifelike brightness value and chroma. The appearance is further maximized by means of the cut-back technique.

MO ingots (Medium Opacity) 

The MO ingots are available in 5 group shades (MO 0-MO 4). Given their opacity, they are ideally suitable for the fabrication of frameworks on vital, slightly discoloured preparations. They provide an excellent basis for lifelike restorations fabricated with the help of the layering technique. 

HO ingots (High Opacity)

The ingots are available in 3 group shades (HO 0-HO 2). Given their high opacity, they are ideally suitable for the fabrication of frameworks on severely discoloured preparations or titanium abutments. They mask the dark subsurface and enable highly esthetic results. 

Impulse ingots (Value, Opal) 

The new Impulse ingots are available in 3 Value (Value 1, 2, 3) and 2 Opal shades (Opal 1, 2). They are mainly used for the fabrication of thin veneers,veneers, table tops, partial and single crowns.

Depending on the favoured processing technique (staining, cut-back or layering technique) and the respective patient situation, a suitable ingot can be found. Individual characterization or veneering is carried out using the coordinated stains and layering materials of the IPS e.max Ceram veneering ceramic. For processing of IPS e.max Press in the EP3000 and EP5000 press furnaces, the two investment materials IPS PressVEST and IPS PressVEST Speed are available. 


  • High strength (400 MPa) and high esthetics
  • Minimally invasive, accurately fitting restorations
  • Four levels of translucency and additional Impulse ingots for maximum flexibility
  • Lifelike esthetics, irrespective of the shade of the preparation
  • Adhesive, self-adhesive or conventional cementation depending on the indication


  • (Thin) veneers
  • Minimally invasive inlays/onlays (1 mm)
  • Partial crowns and crowns
  • Bridges in the anterior and premolar region
  • implant superstructures

Brief Description

  • CAD/CAM coping of densely sintered Zirconium Oxide
  • Lava coping, available in eight shades, is color matched to the crown shade
  • Veneered with porcelain.

Benefits For Doctor's Office  

  • Excellent strength for all ceramic restoration

Benefits For Patient

  • Esthetics - no dark metal to mask and no white opaque layer

Preparation Instructions

  • Traditional crown preparation
  • At least 1 mm chamfer margin
  • 1.5–2.0 mm overall reduction

Days In Lab

  • Eight

Seating Instructions

  • Cement with resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement, dual-cure resin cement, or zinc phosphate cement
  • Do not cement with plain glass ionomer cements
  • Dual cure cements may require an increase in cement spacer

After Care

Routine care

The Lava All-Ceramic System from 3M ESPE is an innovative CAD/CAM technology for all-ceramic crowns and bridges on a zirconium oxide base. The esthetics and biocompatibility of Lava restorations represent the optimum in all-ceramic systems.

Lava preparations require removal of less tooth structure and cementation can be accomplished using proven, conventional techniques. Colorable frameworks that are thin and translucent ensure a natural and vital appearance. Lava provides one of the most durable and esthetic all-ceramic restorations.


Single crowns and bridgework up to 3-4 units for the anterior and posterior region


Not recommended with a feather edge preparation, as it does not provide adequate room for porcelain build-up, or the trough/"gutter" shoulder because of scanning error potential 


Traditional cementation or adhesive bonding

Superior esthetics, as well as the desire to use non-metallic restorative materials have increased the use of dental ceramics. The ceramic materials used for Nobel Biocare's all-ceramic crowns, bridges, laminates and abutments are densely sintered high purity high purity (99.5%) aluminum oxide (alumina) and yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) (zirconia). These ceramic materials possess several desirable characteristics for use in modern dentistry, such as biocompatibility and good mechanical properties.

With Procera® zirconia and Alumina Copings, there are no metal margins to hide and no graying from metal oxides. Zirconia offers extra strength with over 1,200 mpa.


Procera crowns have no metal substructure and are more lifelike than pre-existinging PFM's. The strength of the zirconium oxide coping allows Procera crowns to be used with any conventional crown and bridge cement. Zirconia has a flexural strength and fracture toughness almost twice as high as that of alumina, which makes zirconia very resistant to masticatory forces, while maintaining an exact precision fit

  • Thinner coping enables more flexible esthetic opportunities.
  • Combines zirconia extreme flexural strength, 1200 MPa, with a beautiful esthetic result.
  • New unique coloring technique (no dipping involved) for optimal homogeneity – no color variations.
  • Excellent bond strength between framework and veneering material.
  • Conventional cementation or bonding techniques.
  • No graying from metal oxides, no metal margins to hide.
  • Computer aided design.

Procera Alumina

The Procera Alumina crown is made of densely sintered pure aluminum oxide. It is semitranslucent in color and provides the veneering porcelain with a natural warm dentincolored core for a natural shade blend. The core is available in two shades - white for masking ability and translucent for ideal anterior esthetics.

Indications: Procera Alumina provides 687 MPa's of flexural strength and is indicated for single anterior and posterior crowns. For esthetic purposes, it is available in two core thicknesses - the standard .6mm core for posteriors and the new .4mm translucent core for highly esthetic anteriors.

Cementation: Cement using traditional cementation or adhesive bonding procedures.

Procera Zirconia

Procera Zirconia restorations are created with the aid of the Procera Forte advanced scanner, giving us the ability to manufacture cores of densely-sintered zirconium oxide. Procera Zirconia has a yield strength of 1200 MPa's which exceeds the yield strength of a precious metal PFM and equals that of a non-precious PFM. This strength, in combination with metal-free esthetics, gives Procera Zirconia a distinct advantage over a traditional PFM and eliminates the unpleasant side effects of gingival tattooing and black margins.

Indications: Using this advanced CAD/CAM technology, Procera Zirconia can be used to fabricate bridges up to four units, splinted single crowns, and freestanding single crowns for both anterior and posterior applications.

Cementation: Cement using traditional cementation or adhesive bonding procedures.

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