is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are often needed when a large cavity threatens the ongoing health of a tooth. They are typically bonded to the tooth using a dental cement. Crowns can be made from many materials, which are usually fabricated using indirect methods. Crowns are often used to improve the strength or appearance of teeth.
Porcelain with metal substructure
All ceramic (Metal free)
There are not many materials, such as natural diamond, which combine exceptional beauty and strength. In dentistry, there has been continuous research and development to find materials suitable for dental prosthesis that are aesthetically acceptable, of sufficient strength and which are perfectly tolerated by the human body. For many years ceramic materials combined with metals have been used in dental restorations, ceramic to achieve the desired aesthetics, metal for strength.
A high-tech ceramic, Zirconium Oxide, is now available and has already been proven in many extreme situations such as heat shields in the Space Shuttle, brake disks for sports cars and the spherical heads of artificial hip joints. This high-tech ceramic has the potential to give prosthetic care a whole new image, because thanks to Cercon smart ceramics it can now be used in dentistry.
With the Cercon system, all-ceramic crowns and bridges of up to four units can be made in the incisal and molar regions. In individual cases, depending on the gap of the bridged teeth, even bridges of up to six units are possible. Additional dental applications are already in the testing phase and are just awaiting test results.
Until now, zirconium oxide could only be processed at great expense because of its exceptional hardness and was thus prohibitive for use as a dental prosthesis.
As the result of progress of a research project carried out by the renowned Zurich Federal Institute of Technology, is it now possible to use this material economically in dental technology.
A wax form or model of your "new teeth" is created in the dental laboratory, to the precise specifications provided by your dentist. This wax form serves as the pattern from which a computer-aided milling unit creates your crown or bridge from a solid zirconium oxide blank.
A ceramic veneer in your individual tooth colours is then applied to the milled zirconium oxide unit to achieve the desired characteristics and natural looking appearance. The Cercon system operates safely and flawlessly, with everything coming from one source – DeguDent.
If you would like to learn more about the fascinating steps involved in creating a dental restoration from Cercon smart ceramics, please contact your dentist or his dental technical laboratory.
Zirconium oxide blank
Scanning and milling uni
In addition to a better appearance there are other features that determine the result and longevity of your investment that serve as a particular standard for quality. With Cercon smart ceramics, these quality standards are not just met but re-established. A Cercon dental restoration makes no compromises in aesthetics, compatibility, durability and function.
As the term "all-ceramic" already suggests, Cercon smart ceramics requires no metal framework. This offers a great advantage for your restoration's aesthetics, because the milled zirconium oxide substructure is white in colour. The milled unit is further modelled using Cercon ceram® S veneering porcelain to blend with the existing adjacent teeth in your mouth in both shape and colour, giving the restoration its very natural appearance.
With the additional advantage of having maximum stability thanks to its strength in thin sections, Cercon restorations can be well integrated to follow the natural contours of your mouth. Together with your natural teeth, a harmonious overall appearance can be achieved that makes as good an impression as your own teeth.
Lithium disilicate (LS2) glass-ceramic is ideally suitable for the fabrication of monolithic single-tooth restorations. This innovative ceramic provides highly esthetic results and, compared to other glass-ceramics, demonstrates a strength that is 2.5 to 3 times higher. Supported with zirconium oxide, it may also be used for bridges in the posterior area.
The material is used in the dental laboratory in conjunction with either the press or the CAD/CAM technology. Given the high strength of 360-400 MPa, the restorations offer flexible cementation options. Depending on the patient situation, the restorations may be veneered in a highly esthetic manner or, if fabricated as monolithic restorations, stained.
Even if the preparations demonstrate a dark shade (e.g. as a result of discolouration or titanium abutments), all-ceramic restorations may be fabricated. Inform your laboratory about the die shade and the dental technicians then selects the IPS e.max lithium disilicate material in the required opacity in order to redesign the true-to-nature esthetic appearance.
The lithium disilicate ceramic (LS2) of the IPS e.max system shows that esthetics and strength can be successfully combined. This is particularly true in single-tooth restorations, because this innovative ceramic produces esthetic results, while it is 2 ½ to 3 times stronger than other glass-ceramics.
Lithium disilicate has many uses. Its indication spectrum ranges from thin veneers (0.3 mm) and minimally invasive inlays and onlays to partial crowns, full crowns and threeunit anterior bridges. Of course, implant superstructures can also be produced with this material.
Because of its high strength of 360 - 400 MPa, restorations fabricated with this material can be cemented with different methods.
Due to their natural-looking colour and optimal light transmission, lithium disilicate restorations offer highly esthetic solutions. Depending on the needs of the patient, the restorations can be veneered with a highly esthetic material or they can be fabricated to full contour and then economically characterized.
Even if the tooth's core is dark in colour (eg discoloured stump or titanium abutments), you no longer have to resort to zirconium oxide or metal-ceramic solutions. You can inform the dental laboratory about the colour that needs to be masked and the dental technician in charge will choose the IPS e.max lithium disilicate material with the required opacity to restore the natural esthetic appearance of the tooth.
"Pressed" all-ceramics have been successfully used for 20 years and are synonymous with esthetic, accurately fitting biocompatible restorations.
Experience the versatility of IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LS2). It offers the fit, form and function expected from pressed ceramics. In addition, it exhibits a unique strength of 400 MPa and outstanding esthetics.
The material is available in four levels of translucency. Therefore, naturallooking esthetic results can be achieved irrespective of the appearance of the prepared tooth. As a result, you can use the esthetic all-ceramic IPS e.max Press even if your patients have devitalized teeth or cast core build-ups. Communicate the shade of the prepared tooth to your lab, the technician will then select the suitable IPS e.max material offering the required opacity in order to recreate the natural esthetic appearance.
IPS e.max Press can be used to fabricate restorations which preserve as much of the natural tooth structure as possible, such as inlays, onlays, Table Tops ("occlusal veneers") and Thin Veneers. The range of indications of course also includes crowns, bridges for the anterior and premolar region as well as implant superstructures.
Select the most suitable solution for the individual patient together with your lab technician. You can choose between low-cost fully anatomical restorations, which offer a costeffective and pleasing alternative to full cast crowns, and more expensive restorations which are cut back and layered to meet the most exacting esthetic patient requirements.
IPS e.max Press is an innovative lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LS2) ingot for the press technology.
The innovative IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LS2) provides accuracy of fit, function and esthetics while simultaneously featuring a strength of 400 MPa. The ingots are available in four levels of translucency, two sizes and now also as Impulse ingots. The result is a lifelike esthetic appearance irrespective of the shade of the preparation.
HT ingots (High Translucency)
The HT ingots are available in 16 A-D and 4 Bleach BL shades. Given their high translucency, they are ideal for the fabrication of smaller restorations e.g. inlays and onlays). They can efficiently be individualized using the staining technique.
LT ingots (Low Translucency)
The LT ingots are available in 16 A-D and 4 Bleach BL shades. Given their low translucency, they are ideal for the fabrication of larger restorations(e.g. posterior crowns). They impress users with their lifelike brightness value and chroma. The appearance is further maximized by means of the cut-back technique.
MO ingots (Medium Opacity)
The MO ingots are available in 5 group shades (MO 0-MO 4). Given their opacity, they are ideally suitable for the fabrication of frameworks on vital, slightly discoloured preparations. They provide an excellent basis for lifelike restorations fabricated with the help of the layering technique.
HO ingots (High Opacity)
The ingots are available in 3 group shades (HO 0-HO 2). Given their high opacity, they are ideally suitable for the fabrication of frameworks on severely discoloured preparations or titanium abutments. They mask the dark subsurface and enable highly esthetic results.
Impulse ingots (Value, Opal)
The new Impulse ingots are available in 3 Value (Value 1, 2, 3) and 2 Opal shades (Opal 1, 2). They are mainly used for the fabrication of thin veneers,veneers, table tops, partial and single crowns.
Depending on the favoured processing technique (staining, cut-back or layering technique) and the respective patient situation, a suitable ingot can be found. Individual characterization or veneering is carried out using the coordinated stains and layering materials of the IPS e.max Ceram veneering ceramic. For processing of IPS e.max Press in the EP3000 and EP5000 press furnaces, the two investment materials IPS PressVEST and IPS PressVEST Speed are available.
Benefits For Doctor's Office
Benefits For Patient
Days In Lab
The Lava All-Ceramic System from 3M ESPE is an innovative CAD/CAM technology for all-ceramic crowns and bridges on a zirconium oxide base. The esthetics and biocompatibility of Lava restorations represent the optimum in all-ceramic systems.
Lava preparations require removal of less tooth structure and cementation can be accomplished using proven, conventional techniques. Colorable frameworks that are thin and translucent ensure a natural and vital appearance. Lava provides one of the most durable and esthetic all-ceramic restorations.
Single crowns and bridgework up to 3-4 units for the anterior and posterior region
Not recommended with a feather edge preparation, as it does not provide adequate room for porcelain build-up, or the trough/"gutter" shoulder because of scanning error potential
Traditional cementation or adhesive bonding
Superior esthetics, as well as the desire to use non-metallic restorative materials have increased the use of dental ceramics. The ceramic materials used for Nobel Biocare's all-ceramic crowns, bridges, laminates and abutments are densely sintered high purity high purity (99.5%) aluminum oxide (alumina) and yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) (zirconia). These ceramic materials possess several desirable characteristics for use in modern dentistry, such as biocompatibility and good mechanical properties.
With Procera® zirconia and Alumina Copings, there are no metal margins to hide and no graying from metal oxides. Zirconia offers extra strength with over 1,200 mpa.
Procera crowns have no metal substructure and are more lifelike than pre-existinging PFM's. The strength of the zirconium oxide coping allows Procera crowns to be used with any conventional crown and bridge cement. Zirconia has a flexural strength and fracture toughness almost twice as high as that of alumina, which makes zirconia very resistant to masticatory forces, while maintaining an exact precision fit
The Procera Alumina crown is made of densely sintered pure aluminum oxide. It is semitranslucent in color and provides the veneering porcelain with a natural warm dentincolored core for a natural shade blend. The core is available in two shades - white for masking ability and translucent for ideal anterior esthetics.
Indications: Procera Alumina provides 687 MPa's of flexural strength and is indicated for single anterior and posterior crowns. For esthetic purposes, it is available in two core thicknesses - the standard .6mm core for posteriors and the new .4mm translucent core for highly esthetic anteriors.
Cementation: Cement using traditional cementation or adhesive bonding procedures.
Procera Zirconia restorations are created with the aid of the Procera Forte advanced scanner, giving us the ability to manufacture cores of densely-sintered zirconium oxide. Procera Zirconia has a yield strength of 1200 MPa's which exceeds the yield strength of a precious metal PFM and equals that of a non-precious PFM. This strength, in combination with metal-free esthetics, gives Procera Zirconia a distinct advantage over a traditional PFM and eliminates the unpleasant side effects of gingival tattooing and black margins.
Indications: Using this advanced CAD/CAM technology, Procera Zirconia can be used to fabricate bridges up to four units, splinted single crowns, and freestanding single crowns for both anterior and posterior applications.
Cementation: Cement using traditional cementation or adhesive bonding procedures.
Dental bridge is a dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth by joining permanently to adjacent teeth or dental implants.
* Material for bridges : Same as crowns
A denture is a removable dental appliance to replace missing teeth and the surrounding tissue. They are made to closely resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. A denture helps you to properly chew food and can improve speech and prevent a sagging face by providing support for the cheeks and lips.
There are two types of dentures – complete and partial dentures. Complete dentures are used when all of the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain. A partial denture not only fills in the spaces created by missing teeth, it prevents other teeth from shifting.
Alternative materials : Acrylic base
The process of getting dentures requires several appointments, usually 1-2 weeks. Highly accurate impressions (molds) and measurements are taken and used to create your custom denture. Several "try-in" appointments may be necessary to ensure proper shape color and fit. At the final appointment, your dentist will precisely adjust and deliver the completed denture, ensuring a natural and comfortable fit.
Decide how "long" to make the teeth - Determine the plane of the tooth setup (when you smile, the teeth should be parallel to a line between the pupils of your eyes) - Correct relationship of the upper and lower teeth so that when you bite together, the upper and lower teeth line up correctly using a lose fitting denture base and a rim of wax to approximate the position of the teeth.
Wax try-in, the lab returns the loosely fitting tray from the second appointment with the actual final plastic teeth lined up along the outer edge of the wax rim
The wax try-in looks just like a real denture, except that the base fits loosely on the gums, and the teeth are embedded in wax instead of plastic. This gives us the opportunity to see how the denture looks and works before we are committed to the setup.
It is normal to experience increased saliva flow, some soreness and possible speech and chewing difficulty, however, this will subside as your muscles and tissues get used to the new dentures.
Dentures can be attached to dental implants to allow for a more secure fit of the appliance. Regular dentist examinations are still important for the denture wearer so that the oral tissues can be checked for disease or change. You will be given care instructions for your new dentures. Proper cleaning of your new dental appliance, good oral hygiene and regular dental visits will extend the life of your new dentures.
Prosthodontists are experts in prosthodontics and strive to restore and maintain oral functioning, appearance, and comfort using a variety of restorations and prostheses including dentures, crowns, bridges, veneers, and implants. They help restore natural teeth and replace missing teeth and structures. Prosthodontists diagnose conditions and provide patients with comprehensive treatment options. They often collaborate with general dentists and other health professionals to develop effective treatment plans for their patients